In my last post I talked about tavern clocks which are really the start and a branch of English dial clocks. In this post I would like to focus on the more standard wooden dial clocks or drop dial clocks that run from about C1770 to right up until modern day. I will focus up until WWII but clearly high quality fusee wall clock were made for station clocks and post offices etc up until the advent of radio controlled quartz clocks.
The Act of Parliament in 1797 which imposed a tax on clocks and watches forced many clockmaking factories to close or cut back production or swap production to these wall clocks, which in many cases could escape the tax. When the tax was repealed many factories that swapped over production to dial clocks continued and increased production to take advantage of the more favourable conditions.
During the 19th century movement factories making fusee movements for these dial clocks were becoming increasingly successful and the later you go through the 19th century more and more movements for these dial clocks are made by larger establised firms. It was found increasingly that the clockmaker bought in movements for his clocks during the 19th century and fewer and fewer clocks were made by the clockmaker on the dial. Production had turned to a form of assembly. In fact from the middle of the 19th century onwards more and more clocks were signed by the retailer of the clock and not the actual maker.
The earliest round dial wall clocks are very collectable and they are found with silvered brass dials, verge movements and ‘salt box cases’ some selections can be found here, http://www.pendulumofmayfair.co.uk/category/antique-wall-clocks . It is rare to find these types of clocks and most dial clocks will be from C1820 in date and typically the most I see on my travels date from around C1860/80. These clocks will usually have mahogany cases and anchor escapements. 99% of these clocks will not be striking and have only one train, just for the timekeeping. The dials can either be flat or convex as will be the glass. The most popular size for manufacture was 12 inches across the dial, using a flat white painted dial. More collectable dial clocks tend to have 8 inch or 10 inch dials and the very large 18inch dials are also very hard to find. Most of the best spring driven wall clocks throughout the 19th and even 20th centuries will have fusee movements. These are far better movements than the typical French movements made throughout the 19th century. The French may have excelled in design and with interesting mystery clocks etc but the British still excelled in the quality of the movements made through this period for spring driven clocks.
As I have pointed out the earliest dials were silvered brass dials but most of the dials produced after C1820 are iron white painted dials, you will sometimes find a rare example of a wooden dial dial clock like pictured above right.
During the 20th century dial clocks still had an important role to play in the emerging factories and in the post offices and stations of the UK. RAF sector clocks are also very rare and were used during WWII and the Battle of Britain. These wall clocks are very collectable and be very careful when purchasing, as many have repainted dials and are made to look like original sector clocks. RAF sector clocks commonly had 14inch dials, movements were generally made by the Elliot company and they were dated. The cases usually had a RAF log on the back and a date as well. The finest examples had fusee movements, some cheaper examples had going barrel movements. These sector clocks allowed you to see which squadron was in the air at any one time. There were normally three colours painted to the dial in triangles by the side of the numerals. see picture below. Our London store www.pendulumofmayfair.co.uk sometimes has one of these rare antique clocks in stock.